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All About Vedic Maths

Indian mathematician Jagadguru Shri Bharathi Krishna Tirthaji discovered Vedic mathematics between A.D. 1911 and 1918. He published all of his findings in the book on Vedic Mathematics – Tirthaji Maharaj. Vedic mathematics is also known as mental mathematics in the mathematical world. We can say that their brain power and speed of calculation increase fivefold by performing Vedic calculations.

Vedic Math is a variety collection of Techniques/Sutras to apply and solve math problems quickly and straightforwardly. It carries 16 Sutras and 13 sub-sutras that can be used for arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, and conics problems. Using common mathematical steps, solving problems is sometimes complicated and time-consuming. But with General Vedic Mathematical Techniques (applicable to all given data sets) and Specific Strategy (applicable to certainly given data sets), numerical calculations can be done very quickly. You can also use NCERT Solutions for your reference. 

S.No Sutras Sub-sutras
1 Ekadhiken Purvena Anurupyena
2 Nikhilam Navatacharamam Dasatah Sisyate Sesajnah
3 Urdhva-tiryagbhyam Adyamadyenantya-mantyena
4 Paravartya Yojayet Kevalaih Saptakam Gunyat
5 Sunyma Samyasamuchaye Vestanam
6 (Anurupye) Sunyamanyat Yavadunam Tavadunam
7 Sankalana-vyavakalamnabyam Yavadunam Tavadunikrtya Varganca Yojayet
8 Puranapuranabhyam Antyayoradaskaepi
9 Chalana-Kalanabhyam Antyayoreva
10 Yavadunam Samuccayagunitha
11 Vyastisamastih Lopanasthapanabhyam
12 Sesanyankena Caramena Vilokanam
13 Sopantyadvayamantyam Gunitasamuccayah Samuccayagunitah
14 Ekanyunena Purvena
15 Gunitasamuccayah
16 Gunakasamuccayah

History

Shri Bharathi Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj was born in March 1884 in the village of Puri in Orissa province. He excelled in maths, science, humanity, and Sanskrit. He was also interested in spiritism and meditation. While meditating in the forest near Sringeri, he also discovered 

. He says he learned these sutras from the Vedas, especially the ‘Rig-Veda’ directly or indirectly, and acquired them accurately when doing meditation for eight years.

He later wrote sutras in manuscripts but lost them. Later, in 1957, he wrote the introduction volume of 16 sutras called Vedic Mathematics and planned out to write more sutra later. But he developed cataracts in both eyes and died in 1960.

Importance of Vedic Maths

The importance of Vedic Math can be explained in a variety of ways. Vedic arithmetic to simplify numerical problems is much faster than modern arithmetic methods. Sometimes, this method to streamline arithmetic does not require paper and pen either. Therefore, learning Vedic math saves time and enhances the interest in learning other math questions. These are some of the benefits of Vedic Maths:

  • It helps one to solve math problems very quickly.
  • It helps you to make the wise decisions in both simple and complex problems
  • Reduces the burden of memorizing complex ideas
  • Increases child’s focus and willingness to understand and develop their skills
  • It helps to minimize the irrational mistakes children often make during the examination.

Tricks for Vedic Maths

Addition

Addition is one of the most essential functions of Vedic mathematics. It says,

Find the number closest to most 10s because it is easy to add those numbers.

8, 9 near 10

22, 23 near 20

78, 79, close to 80

98, 99, close to 100,  and so on.

Add numbers that are multiples of 10s

Add / Remove number shortages.

Let’s understand with an example.

Let’s assume we have to add 38 and 99.

So, Vedic calculations tell us to add 40 and 100 to 140 and subtract (2 + 1), which means a deficit of 140. So the result will be 137.

Similarly, if we have to add 67 and 548.

So, the Vedic calculations tell us to add 70 and 550, which is 620, and subtract (3 + 2), which means short of 650. So the result will be 645.

There is another strategy to make additions using Vedic arithmetic: adding hundreds and hundreds, tens and ones individually, and so on.

Subtraction

Subtraction using Vedic statistics, following the rules given below,

If the subtrahend is less than a minuend, we can subtract the numbers directly.

If any digit in the minuend is less than the corresponding digit in the subtrahend, we use the concept of completeness.

Let’s look at examples to understand these strategies.

1) If the subtrahend is less than minuend: If we have to subtract 48 to 99, then we can directly subtract the subtrahend digits from the corresponding digits in the minus digit

99 – 48 = 51

2) If any digit in the minuend is less than the corresponding digit in the subtrahend: 897 – 238

In this case, where the digit in the subtrahend is the largest, we use the complement symbol when subtracting, as shown below,

897-238= 651

The complement of 2 = 10-1 = 9

While replacing the value of 1, we will subtract 1 from the digit next place. Hence we’ll subtract 1 from 5

+

The answer will be 

897- 238 = 659

Multiplication

In addition and subtraction, repetition can be done using different sutras in Vedic figures. This section will teach two simple ways to multiply numbers and examples.

Option 1:

In this way, we can multiply the numbers by their units by adding up to 10 units or the power of 10.

Let’s look at the solved example given below to understand the multiplication of numbers.

Example:

Repeat 64 and 68.

Solution:

53 × 57

Total number of units = 3 + 7 = 10

Digits in ten places = 5

Therefore, we can write repetition as:

53 × 57 = 5 × (5 + 1) / 3 × 7

= 5 × 6/3 × 7

= 30/21

= 3021

We can also verify the result using standard mathematical calculations.

This repetition method is known as the Sutra Ekadhiken Purvena. This method can also multiply two numbers whose last two digits are added up to 100, and the previous three added up to 1000. Also, in the case of composite parts, the total number of relevant factors should be added up to 1. to use this method of repetition.

Square

With numbers ending in 5:

Step 1: Make 5 × 5 = 25

Step 2: Enter 1 in the last number, and the result is the previous number.

For example, in the case of a square of 75, Add 1 to 7 = 8 and multiply 8 by 7 = 56

Step 3: The result of the second step will be the first number of the last answer, and the result of the first step will be the last two digits of the previous reply. So the final solution would be 7225.

Similarly,

What is 185 square?

Step 1: 5 × 5 = 25

Step 2: 18 × 19 = 342

Step 3: Combine the two results, which will give us 34225, which is the final answer.

Conclusion

Vedic Maths shows the process of doing things faster. It does not teach a child the basic philosophy of a set problem. Quick calculations are a waste if we fail to learn the meaning or read after the problem set. These techniques can only do wonders if appropriately used after learning the right learning experience. Practice makes a man perfect, but Reading makes a man capable. Therefore, make it a habit only after understanding its nuances.

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